Case Report of GNAS Epigenetic Defect Revealed by a Congenital Hypothyroidism
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a group of disorders characterized by end-organ resistance to the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PHP type 1A includes multihormone resistance syndrome, Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy, and obesity and is caused by mutations in GNAS exon 1 through 13. PHP type 1B (PHP1B), caused by epigenetic changes in the GNAS locus, was initially described as an isolated resistance to PTH. Epigenetic changes in GNAS have also been reported in patients who display mild Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy or mild thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) resistance without mutation of GNAS. Here we report a case of PHP caused by epigenetic changes in GNAS in a patient with congenital hypothyroidism. The patient was referred for a positive newborn screening for hypothyroidism (TSH 50 mIU/L). She exhibited severe clinical features of congenital hypothyroidism. The thyroid was in place, and etiologic explorations were negative. TSH was normalized under L-thyroxin, and the symptoms disappeared, except for a macroglossia. In childhood, PHP was suspected in addition to elevated PTH, obesity, brachydactyly, and a rounded face. Sequencing, methylation analysis, and large deletion research were performed in GNAS. No genetic mutations were found. Methylation analysis revealed a broad epigenetic defect without deletion in GNAS consistent with sporadic PHP1B. The multilocus methylation analysis were negative. This finding expands the known onsets of PHP1B and emphasizes the need for a new PHP classification system. This case report has important consequences for the etiologic diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism because it adds a new cause of the disease.
- imprinting disorder
- pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B
- congenital hypothyroidism
- TSH resistance
- Accepted January 9, 2015.
- Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics