Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disorder With Pleiotropic Effects
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is an important cause of chronic kidney disease in children. The care of ARPKD patients has traditionally been the realm of pediatric nephrologists; however, the disease has multisystem effects, and a comprehensive care strategy often requires a multidisciplinary team. Most notably, ARPKD patients have congenital hepatic fibrosis, which can lead to portal hypertension, requiring close follow-up by pediatric gastroenterologists. In severely affected infants, the diagnosis is often first suspected by obstetricians detecting enlarged, echogenic kidneys and oligohydramnios on prenatal ultrasounds. Neonatologists are central to the care of these infants, who may have respiratory compromise due to pulmonary hypoplasia and massively enlarged kidneys. Surgical considerations can include the possibility of nephrectomy to relieve mass effect, placement of dialysis access, and kidney and/or liver transplantation. Families of patients with ARPKD also face decisions regarding genetic testing of affected children, testing of asymptomatic siblings, or consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for future pregnancies. They may therefore interface with genetic counselors, geneticists, and reproductive endocrinologists. Children with ARPKD may also be at risk for neurocognitive dysfunction and may require neuropsychological referral. The care of patients and families affected by ARPKD is therefore a multidisciplinary effort, and the general pediatrician can play a central role in this complex web of care. In this review, we outline the spectrum of clinical manifestations of ARPKD and review genetics of the disease, clinical and genetic diagnosis, perinatal management, management of organ-specific complications, and future directions for disease monitoring and potential therapies.
- polycystic kidney disease
- congenital hepatic fibrosis
- genetic testing
- preimplantation genetic diagnosis
- kidney transplantation
- liver transplantation
- Accepted April 7, 2014.
- Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics