Motor Performance After Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Longitudinal Evaluation
OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinally children’s motor performance 5 to 12 years after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and to evaluate associations between clinical characteristics and motor performance.
METHODS: Two hundred fifty-four neonatal ECMO survivors in the Netherlands were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at 5, 8, and/or 12 years. Percentile scores were transformed to z scores for longitudinal evaluation (norm population mean = 0 and SD = 1). Primary diagnoses: meconium aspiration syndrome (n = 137), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 49), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (n = 36), other diagnoses (n = 32).
RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-six tests were analyzed. At 5, 8, and 12 years motor performance was normal in 73.7, 74.8, and 40.5%, respectively (vs 85% expected based on reference values; P < .001 at all ages). In longitudinal analyses mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) z scores were –0.42 (–0.55 to –0.28), –0.25 (–0.40 to –0.10) and –1.00 (–1.26 to –0.75) at 5, 8, and 12 years, respectively. Mean score at 8 years was significantly higher than at 5 years (difference 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.30), and mean score at 12 years was significantly lower than at both other ages (differences –0.59 and –0.75; 95% CI –0.33 to –0.84 and –0.49 to –1.00, respectively). Children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia encountered problems at all ages. The presence of chronic lung disease was negatively related with outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Motor problems in neonatal ECMO survivors persist throughout childhood and become more obvious with time.
- Accepted May 15, 2014.
- Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics