OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
METHODS: Pediatric Health Information System data were queried for newborns with CDH admitted at <8 days of age at tertiary care US pediatric hospitals between 2003 and 2011. INO treatment status and timing in relation to CDH repair were determined for each infant. Hospital-specific rates of INO use, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use, and mortality were determined.
RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 1713 neonates with CDH admitted to 33 hospitals. More than half (57%) received INO during their inpatient stay, and utilization varied dramatically between hospitals (34% to 92%). Neonates treated with INO accumulated >$81 million in pharmacy charges. The proportion of infants receiving INO as well as their duration of therapy increased significantly during the study period. The rate of ECMO utilization and mortality did not change significantly during the study period. Hospital-specific mortality rates did not correlate with INO therapy, ECMO utilization, or case volume.
CONCLUSIONS: INO use in neonates with CDH is widespread, and has increased at many US tertiary pediatric hospitals without contemporaneous change in ECMO utilization or mortality. The improvement of evidence-based guidelines for the use of INO in newborns with CDH could lead to a reduction in health care costs for these patients.
- Accepted May 7, 2014.
- Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics