Risk and Prevalence of Developmental Delay in Young Children With Congenital Heart Disease
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for developmental delay (DD). Changes in cognitive, language, and motor skills in early childhood have not been described. We report the results of a structured approach using longitudinal testing to identify problems and ensure early intervention in accordance with published guidelines.
METHODS: Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition, were used to assess cognitive, language, and motor skills in 99 children with CHD. Subjects were evaluated 3 to 6 times in the first 3 years of life. DD was defined as scores >1 SD below the population mean.
RESULTS: Cardiac anatomy was single ventricle (1V) in 34 subjects and 2 ventricles (2V) in 65. Medical comorbidities were present in 21% and genetic syndromes in 19%. Most subjects (75%) had DD in ≥1 area at ≥1 assessments. Subjects with 1V anatomy had equivalent outcomes to those with 2V. Cognitive and language scores declined in subjects with genetic syndromes but were stable and within the average range for subjects with 1V and 2V. Motor scores improved for subjects with 1V and 2V but remained low for those with genetic syndromes. In addition to age, need for supplemental tube feeding, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and shorter time since last hospitalization were significant predictors of developmental outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: DDs in young children with CHD are both common and dynamic. Providers should encourage longitudinal surveillance for children with CHD because exposure to risk and prevalence of DD change over time.
- congenital heart disease and defects
- developmental follow-up
- developmental outcomes
- assessment and surveillance
- child development
- Accepted November 26, 2013.
- Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics