Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Infants Younger Than 90 Days Before and After Introduction of PCV7
BACKGROUND: Introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) changed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We evaluated the changes that occurred after PCV7 introduction among Utah infants aged 1 to 90 days, too young to be fully immunized.
METHODS: We identified children <18 years with culture-confirmed IPD from 1997–2010. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and serotype data for infants aged 1–90 days. The pre– and post–vaccine introduction periods spanned 1997–2000 and 2001–2010, respectively.
RESULTS: Of 513 children with IPD, 36 were 1 to 90 days and accounted for 7% of IPD cases in both the pre– and post–vaccine introduction period. The pre–vaccine IPD incidence rate was 5.0 per 100 000 live births, and was unchanged in the post–vaccine introduction period. IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased by 74% (from 2.2 to 0.58 per 100 000), whereas non-vaccine serotype IPD increased by 57% (from 2.8 to 4.4 per 100 000). Sixteen infants (44%) required intensive care, and 3 (8%) died. Bacteremia without focus (56%) and meningitis (44%) were the predominant syndromes in the pre– and post–vaccine introduction periods, respectively. In the post–vaccine introduction period, serotype 7F was the most common serotype among infants and was responsible for 50% of meningitis.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IPD in Utah infants aged 1 to 90 days caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased after PCV7 introduction, but overall incidence was unchanged. In the post–vaccine introduction period, serotype 7F predominated in this age group and was associated with meningitis.
- ABC —
- Active Bacterial Core
- CI —
- confidence interval
- EDW —
- Enterprise Data Warehouse
- IPD —
- invasive pneumococcal disease
- PCMC —
- Primary Children’s Medical Center
- PCV7 —
- heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- PCV13 —
- 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- Accepted March 22, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics