Pregnancy Dose Tdap and Postpartum Cocooning to Prevent Infant Pertussis: A Decision Analysis
BACKGROUND: Infants <2 months of age are at highest risk of pertussis morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended protecting young infants by “cocooning” or vaccination of postpartum mothers and other close contacts with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed (Tdap) booster vaccine. ACIP recommends pregnancy vaccination as a preferred and safe alternative to postpartum vaccination. The ACIP cocooning recommendation has not changed.
METHODS: We used a cohort model reflecting US 2009 births and the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis schedule to simulate a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy compared with postpartum vaccination with or without vaccination of other close contacts (ie, cocooning). We analyzed infant pertussis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, as well as direct disease, indirect, and public health costs for infants in the first year of life. All costs were updated to 2011 US dollars.
RESULTS: Pregnancy vaccination could reduce annual infant pertussis incidence by more than postpartum vaccination, reducing cases by 33% versus 20%, hospitalizations by 38% versus 19%, and deaths by 49% versus 16%. Additional cocooning doses in a father and 1 grandparent could avert an additional 16% of cases but at higher cost. The cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved for pregnancy vaccination was substantially less than postpartum vaccination ($414 523 vs $1 172 825).
CONCLUSIONS: Tdap vaccination during pregnancy could avert more infant cases and deaths at lower cost than postpartum vaccination, even when postpartum vaccination is combined with additional cocooning doses. Pregnancy dose vaccination is the preferred alternative to postpartum vaccination for preventing infant pertussis.
- ACIP —
- Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
- CDC —
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- DTaP —
- diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis
- NNDSS —
- National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System
- QALY —
- quality-adjusted life-year
- Tdap —
- tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed
- VE —
- vaccine effectiveness
- Accepted March 11, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics