A Cough Algorithm for Chronic Cough in Children: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Study
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to: (1) determine if management according to a standardized clinical management pathway/algorithm (compared with usual treatment) improves clinical outcomes by 6 weeks; and (2) assess the reliability and validity of a standardized clinical management pathway for chronic cough in children.
METHODS: A total of 272 children (mean ± SD age: 4.5 ± 3.7 years) were enrolled in a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 5 Australian centers. Children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 arms: (1) early review and use of cough algorithm (“early-arm”); or (2) usual care until review and use of cough algorithm (“delayed-arm”). The primary outcomes were proportion of children whose cough resolved and cough-specific quality of life scores at week 6. Secondary measures included cough duration postrandomization and the algorithm’s reliability, validity, and feasibility.
RESULTS: Cough resolution (at week 6) was significantly more likely in the early-arm group compared with the delayed-arm group (absolute risk reduction: 24.7% [95% confidence interval: 13–35]). The difference between cough-specific quality of life scores at week 6 compared with baseline was significantly better in the early-arm group (mean difference between groups: 0.6 [95% confidence interval: 0.29–1.0]). Duration of cough postrandomization was significantly shorter in the early-arm group than in the delayed-arm group (P = .001). The cough algorithm was reliable (κ = 1 in key steps). Feasibility was demonstrated by the algorithm’s validity (93%–100%) and efficacy (99.6%). Eighty-five percent of children had etiologies easily diagnosed in primary care.
CONCLUSIONS: Management of children with chronic cough, in accordance with a standardized algorithm, improves clinical outcomes irrespective of when it is implemented. Further testing of this standardized clinical algorithm in different settings is recommended.
- CI —
- confidence interval
- IQR —
- interquartile range
- NNT —
- number needed to treat
- PedsQL —
- pediatric quality of life
- PC-QoL —
- parent-proxy cough-specific quality of life
- RCT —
- randomized controlled trial
- Accepted January 5, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics