Effect of Rotavirus Vaccine on Diarrhea Mortality in Different Socioeconomic Regions of Mexico
OBJECTIVE: In Mexico, declines in childhood diarrhea deaths have been documented during 2008–2010 after rotavirus vaccine introduction in 2007. Because of concerns about variation in rotavirus vaccine efficacy by socioeconomic status, we compared reductions in diarrhea mortality in the lesser developed southern region versus the more developed northern and central regions of Mexico.
METHODS: We obtained data from national vital statistics on diarrhea deaths among children aged <5 years from 2002 through 2011. We compared region-specific diarrhea mortality before (2003–2006) and after (2009–2011) vaccine introduction. Regional vaccine coverage was estimated from administrative data, and socioeconomic status was assessed by using the Human Development Index.
RESULTS: In northern, central, and southern Mexico, the 2007 Human Development Index was 0.84, 0.82, and 0.77, respectively, and by 2010 an estimated 99%, 84%, and 89% of children aged <12 months had completed rotavirus vaccination. Diarrhea mortality among children <5 years old declined from 8.3, 17.9, and 28.5 deaths per 100 000 children during 2003–2006 to 4.5, 8.1, and 16.2 in 2009–2011 in northern, central, and southern Mexico, respectively, corresponding to rate reductions of 45%, 55%, and 43%. No significant differences were observed in rate reductions between regions (P > .8).
CONCLUSIONS: After introduction of rotavirus vaccination, marked and sustained declines in diarrhea deaths were seen among children in all regions of Mexico, including in the least developed southern region with the highest baseline diarrhea mortality. This finding indicates equitable vaccine delivery to children with varying risk of mortality and reaffirms the beneficial effects of rotavirus vaccination against fatal diarrheal disease.
- CI —
- confidence interval
- CENSIA —
- National Center for Child and Adolescent Health
- WHO —
- World Health Organization
- Accepted November 28, 2012.
- Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics