Cord-Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Respiratory Infection, Wheezing, and Asthma
Objective: Higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of wheezing in offspring. The relationship between cord-blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and childhood wheezing is unknown. We hypothesized that cord-blood levels would be inversely associated with risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma.
Patients and Methods: Cord blood from 922 newborns was tested for 25(OH)D. Parents were asked if their child had a history of respiratory infection at 3 months of age or a history of wheezing at 15 months of age and then annually thereafter. Incident asthma was defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma by the time the child was 5 years old and reported inhaler use or wheezing since the age of 4 years.
Results: The median cord-blood level of 25(OH)D was 44 nmol/L (interquartile range: 29–78). Follow-up was 89% at the age of 5 years. Adjusting for the season of birth, 25(OH)D had an inverse association with risk of respiratory infection by 3 months of age (odds ratio: 1.00 [reference] for ≥75 nmol/L, 1.39 for 25–74 nmol/L, and 2.16 [95% confidence interval: 1.35–3.46] for <25 nmol/L). Likewise, cord-blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with risk of wheezing by 15 months, 3 years, and 5 years of age (all P < .05). Additional adjustment for more than 12 potential confounders did not materially change these results. In contrast, we found no association between 25(OH)D levels and incident asthma by the age of 5 years.
Conclusions: Cord-blood levels of 25(OH)D had inverse associations with risk of respiratory infection and childhood wheezing but no association with incident asthma.
- Accepted September 15, 2010.
- Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics