This technical report describes the process followed in the development of the AAP practice parameter on acute gastroenteritis, as well as the evidence used to formulate the final recommendations.
An evidence model that defined acute gastroenteritis and identified diagnostic tests and interventions used in its management and outcomes of importance was used to identify topics to include in the guideline. The three topics selected were: (1) methods of rehydration, (2) refeeding after rehydration, and (3) the use of antidiarrheal agents. Primary outcomes of interest were duration of disease, complications of therapy, parental satisfaction, and cost.
Multiple bibliographic sources were searched to identify articles related to these areas; the sources included MEDLINE, reports on gastroenteritis from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, the Federal Register, a report to the Food and Drug Administration, and files of the expert panel. More than 4000 articles were initially reviewed, of which 230 were identified as being potentially related to the three topics. Qualitative aspects of the literature reviewed were summarized in evidence tables. Sufficient data for quantitative summary were available only for refeeding after rehydration. In this analysis, the weighted difference across studies between treatment and control groups in the mean duration of diarrhea was used as the measure of the relative benefit of one form of therapy over another.
Methods of Rehydration
Evidence comparing oral rehydration and intravenous therapy was limited to five reports of randomized trials conducted in developed countries. It was not possible to perform a quantitative synthesis of this information because of a lack of similar outcomes.
- Copyright © 1996 by the American Academy of Pediatrics