As of October 15, 1985, there have been 204 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (or 1% of the total number of cases) reported in American children. Serologic testing has detected additional high-risk children (eg, hemophiliacs) who are human T lymphotropic virus type Ill/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/ LAV) antibody positive and are apparently well. Some of these children are of school age; thus, a policy on school attendance of children with HTLV-III infection is required.
The present AAP recommendations are based on (1) a review of available data related to potential transmission of HTLV-III by school-aged children and (2) the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) statement of August 30, 1985.
These recommendations apply to all children known to be infected with HTLV-III/LAV including (1) children with AIDS as defined for reporting purposes (see Table); (2) children determined to have an illness due to infection with HTLV-III/ LAV but who do not meet the case definition, which has been called AIDS-related complex (ARC; symptoms may include chronic lymphadenopathy, weight loss, fever, chronic diarrhea, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and mild signs of opportunistic infections); (3) children who are asymptomatic but have virologic or serologic evidence of HTLV-III/LAV infection.
It is important that the serologic screening test for HTLV-III be confirmed by specific tests to eliminate false-positive results. True seropositive individuals have a high probability of being infected with HTLV-III and, therefore, are potentially Capable of transmitting the virus to others.
The adult and adolescent cases, which constitute about 99% of all cases, are transmitted primarily through sexual contact (homosexual and heterosexual) and by intravenous injection of infected blood or blood products.
- Copyright © 1986 by the American Academy of Pediatrics