July 2017, VOLUME 140 / ISSUE 1
Table of Contents
- Open AccessChildhood Firearm Injuries in the United StatesKatherine A. Fowler, Linda L. Dahlberg, Tadesse Haileyesus, Carmen Gutierrez, Sarah BaconPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163486; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3486
Firearm injuries are a leading cause of death among US children. This article examines patterns by intent, trends over time, state-level patterns, and precipitating circumstances.
- Open AccessOutcomes of Nonoperative Management of Uncomplicated AppendicitisRichard G. Bachur, Susan C. Lipsett, Michael C. MonuteauxPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170048; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0048
According to administrative data from 45 US pediatric hospitals, NOM of appendicitis is increasing and is associated with increased subsequent ED visits and hospitalizations.
- Open AccessPrematurity and Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths in the United StatesBarbara M. Ostfeld, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, Nancy E. Reichman, Julien O. Teitler, Thomas HegyiPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163334; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3334
Despite recommendations for safe sleep education in NICUs, national data indicate SUID rates remain inversely associated with GA.
- Open AccessThe Yale Observation Scale Score and the Risk of Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile InfantsLise E. Nigrovic, Prashant V. Mahajan, Stephen M. Blumberg, Lorin R. Browne, James G. Linakis, Richard M. Ruddy, Jonathan E. Bennett, Alexander J. Rogers, Leah Tzimenatos, Elizabeth C. Powell, Elizabeth R. Alpern, T. Charles Casper, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann, for the Febrile Infant Working Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)Pediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170695; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0695
In our large prospective cohort of febrile infants, neither the YOS score nor unstructured clinician suspicion reliably identified infants with serious bacterial infections.
- Open AccessUpper Respiratory Infections and Airway Adverse Events in Pediatric Procedural SedationMichael D. Mallory, Curtis Travers, Courtney E. McCracken, James Hertzog, Joseph P. CraveroPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170009; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0009
We used prospectively collected data from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium to evaluate the relationship between URIs and the frequency of AAEs.
- Open AccessEggs in Early Complementary Feeding and Child Growth: A Randomized Controlled TrialLora L. Iannotti, Chessa K. Lutter, Christine P. Stewart, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, William F. WatersPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163459; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3459
This rigorously conducted trial showed that when offered early in complementary feeding, the food-based intervention of eggs produced a large effect size on child growth.
- Open AccessEarly Sign Language Exposure and Cochlear Implantation BenefitsAnn E. Geers, Christine M. Mitchell, Andrea Warner-Czyz, Nae-Yuh Wang, Laurie S. Eisenberg, the CDaCI Investigative TeamPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163489; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3489
This study examines whether early sign language exposure in children with CIs influences speech recognition, speech intelligibility, language, and reading outcomes.
- Open AccessChorioamnionitis and Management of Asymptomatic Infants ≥35 Weeks Without Empiric AntibioticsAmanda I. Jan, Rangasamy Ramanathan, Rowena G. CayabyabPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162744; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2744
This study presents an alternative strategy eliminating immediate empirical antibiotic therapy in the management of asymptomatic chorioamnionitis-exposed infants ≥35 weeks’ gestation.
- Open AccessMother-Infant Room-Sharing and Sleep Outcomes in the INSIGHT StudyIan M. Paul, Emily E. Hohman, Eric Loken, Jennifer S. Savage, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Patricia Carper, Michele E. Marini, Leann L. BirchPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170122; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0122
For prevention of SIDS, the AAP recommends infant-parent room-sharing until age 1. However, these new data show potential unintended consequences of room-sharing.
- Open AccessThe Epidemiology, Management, and Outcomes of Bacterial Meningitis in InfantsLynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L. RobinsonPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170476; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0476
This study details patients diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in the first 90 days of life at 7 pediatric hospitals in Canada.
- Open AccessChildhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income CountriesMarcella Alsan, Anlu Xing, Paul Wise, Gary L. Darmstadt, Eran BendavidPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163175; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3175
In this study, we provide insight into mechanisms to effectively close the gender gap in adolescent education while improving child health.
- Open AccessMetformin for Obesity in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children: A Randomized Controlled TrialBelén Pastor-Villaescusa, M. Dolores Cañete, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, Raúl Hoyos, Miriam Latorre, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Julio Plaza-Díaz, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M. AguileraPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164285; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4285
The present study is an evaluation of metformin’s effect on BMI z score, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal and pubertal children who are obese.
- Open AccessParenting Intervention at Age 11 and Cotinine Levels at Age 20 Among African American YouthYi-fu Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gene H. BrodyPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164162; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4162
Participation in a family-centered parenting intervention at age 11 was associated with lower cotinine levels at age 20, with program-enhanced parenting responsible for the outcome.
- Open AccessVariation in Formula Supplementation of Breastfed Newborn Infants in New York HospitalsTrang Nguyen, Barbara A. Dennison, Wei Fan, Changning Xu, Guthrie S. BirkheadPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170142; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0142
In this study, we show that differences in maternal or infant factors can only be explained by a small portion of the variation in hospitals’ formula supplementation.
- Open AccessAssisted Reproductive Techniques and Risk of Beckwith-Wiedemann SyndromeAlessandro Mussa, Cristina Molinatto, Flavia Cerrato, Orazio Palumbo, Massimo Carella, Giuseppina Baldassarre, Diana Carli, Clementina Peris, Andrea Riccio, Giovanni Battista FerreroPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164311; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4311
This study highlights the need for awareness in the scientific community that ART entails an increased risk of BWS.
- Open AccessContinuity of Care in Infancy and Early Childhood Health OutcomesElizabeth Enlow, Molly Passarella, Scott A. LorchPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170339; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0339
This study examines, in a prospectively-constructed birth cohort, the association between continuity in infancy and health care utilization and recommended preventive care in early childhood.
- Open AccessClinicians’ Perceptions of Screening for Food Insecurity in Suburban Pediatric PracticeDeepak Palakshappa, Aditi Vasan, Saba Khan, Leah Seifu, Chris Feudtner, Alexander G. FiksPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170319; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0319
National organizations recommend that all pediatricians screen for FI. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of screening for FI in suburban pediatric practices.
- Open AccessSuburban Families’ Experience With Food Insecurity Screening in Primary Care PracticesDeepak Palakshappa, Stephanie Doupnik, Aditi Vasan, Saba Khan, Leah Seifu, Chris Feudtner, Alexander G. FiksPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170320; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0320
To effectively address food insecurity and provide family-centered care, we determined parents’ perceptions of screening for food insecurity in suburban pediatrics practices.
- Open AccessImpact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort StudyKaren Glazer Peres, Gustavo G. Nascimento, Marco Aurelio Peres, Murthy N. Mittinty, Flavio Fernando Demarco, Ina Silva Santos, Alicia Matijasevich, Aluisio J D BarrosPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162943; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2943
Rigorous methodology and sophisticated statistical analysis improve the evidence of prolonged breastfeeding as a risk factor for primary dental caries.
- Open AccessAccess to Emergency Contraception After Removal of Age RestrictionsTracey A. Wilkinson, Porsche Clark, Sally Rafie, Aaron E. Carroll, Elizabeth MillerPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164262; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4262
Same-day access to EC is examined nationally by using mystery callers. Persistent barriers remain despite regulatory changes that started in 2013, which made it OTC.
- Open AccessPilot RCT Results of an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Male AdolescentsMichele L. Ybarra, Tonya L. Prescott, Gregory L. Phillips, Sheana S. Bull, Jeffrey T. Parsons, Brian MustanskiPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162999; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2999
This study reports the RCT findings of G2G, the first mobile health HIV prevention program for 14- to 18-year-old sexual minority males tested nationally.
- Open AccessPreparation for Transition to Adult Care Among Medicaid-Insured AdolescentsGregory S. Sawicki, Katharine C. Garvey, Sara L. Toomey, Kathryn A. Williams, J. Lee Hargraves, Thomas James, Jean L. Raphael, Angelo P. Giardino, Mark A. Schuster, Jonathan A. FinkelsteinPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162768; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2768
This study of Medicaid-insured adolescents with chronic health conditions reveals deficiencies in preparation for transition to adult-focused health care via a novel youth-reported survey measure.
- Open AccessBehavioral Patterns in Adolescents Born at 23 to 25 Weeks of GestationMaria Samuelsson, Antti Holsti, Marie Adamsson, Fredrik Serenius, Bruno Hägglöf, Aijaz FarooqiPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170199; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0199
This study of adolescents born extremely preterm adds evidence to the proposed preterm behavioral phenotype characterized by increased risks for inattention, anxiety, and social difficulties.
- Open AccessHead Growth Trajectory and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm NeonatesKamini Raghuram, Junmin Yang, Paige T. Church, Zenon Cieslak, Anne Synnes, Amit Mukerji, Prakesh S. Shah, for the Canadian Neonatal Network, Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network InvestigatorsPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170216; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0216
A retrospective analysis revealed that poor HG during the neonatal and postdischarge periods was associated with motor and cognitive delays at 16 to 36 months.
- Open AccessPictograms, Units and Dosing Tools, and Parent Medication Errors: A Randomized StudyH. Shonna Yin, Ruth M. Parker, Lee M. Sanders, Alan Mendelsohn, Benard P. Dreyer, Stacy Cooper Bailey, Deesha A. Patel, Jessica J. Jimenez, Kwang-Youn A. Kim, Kara Jacobson, Michelle C.J. Smith, Laurie Hedlund, Nicole Meyers, Terri McFadden, Michael S. WolfPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163237; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3237
Specific improvements in the design of medication labels and strategic provision of dosing tools can significantly reduce parental risk of dosing errors.
- Open AccessImplicit Weight Bias in Children Age 9 to 11 YearsAsheley Cockrell Skinner, Keith Payne, Andrew J. Perrin, Abigail T. Panter, Janna B. Howard, Anna Bardone-Cone, Cynthia M. Bulik, Michael J. Steiner, Eliana M. PerrinPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163936; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3936
Through a computerized priming task, this study captures evidence of implicit weight bias among children.
- Open AccessBody Composition in Adolescents During Treatment With Selective Serotonin Reuptake InhibitorsChadi A. Calarge, James A. Mills, Kathleen F. Janz, Trudy L. Burns, William H. Coryell, Babette S. ZemelPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163943; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3943
Antidepressants, but not depression or anxiety, were associated with an increase in weight and body fat and a delay in longitudinal growth in older adolescents.
- Open AccessTime-Use Patterns and Health-Related Quality of Life in AdolescentsMonica Wong, Tim Olds, Lisa Gold, Kate Lycett, Dorothea Dumuid, Josh Muller, Fiona K. Mensah, David Burgner, John B. Carlin, Ben Edwards, Terence Dwyer, Peter Azzopardi, Melissa Wake, on behalf of the LSAC’s Child Health CheckPoint Investigator GroupPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163656; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3656
In this cross-sectional study of 1455 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined the association between 24-hour time-use patterns and HRQoL.
- Open AccessVariations in Cause-of-Death Determination for Sudden Unexpected Infant DeathsCarrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, Sharyn E. Parks, Jennifer Brustrom, Tom Andrew, Lena Camperlengo, John Fudenberg, Betsy Payn, Dale RhodaPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170087; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0087
ME/Cs determined causes of SUIDs by responding to hypothetical scenarios with negative autopsy findings and safe or unsafe sleeping environments.
- Open AccessOpportunities and Shared Decision-Making to Help Children Who Are Deaf to CommunicateKarl R. White, Louis Z. CooperPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20171287; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-1287
- Open AccessThe Safety of Medications in Pregnant Women: An Opportunity to Use Database StudiesAndrea V. Margulis, Elizabeth B. AndrewsPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164194; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4194
- Open AccessThe Whole “PROOF”: Incorporating Evidence-Based Medicine Into Clinical TeachingNicholas M. Potisek, Kenya McNeal-Trice, Michael A. BaronePediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20171073; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-1073
- Open AccessBrain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic ReviewMirthe J. Mebius, Elisabeth M.W. Kooi, Catherina M. Bilardo, Arend F. BosPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20164055; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4055
This review provides an overview of the association between fetal and postnatal preoperative brain injury and NDO in infants with complex CHD.
- Open AccessHealth Services Use by Late Preterm and Term Infants From Infancy to Adulthood: A Meta-analysisTetsuya Isayama, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Daria O’Reilly, Joseph Beyene, Sarah D. McDonaldPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170266; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0266
A systematic review and meta-analysis summarizing varying HSU of late-preterm infants compared with term infants from the neonatal period to adulthood.
State-of-the-Art Review Article
- Open AccessEndothelial Cell Function and Dysfunction in Critically Ill ChildrenRichard W. Pierce, John S. Giuliano, Jordan S. PoberPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170355; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0355
This article reviews the biology of ECs in the context of critically ill children and highlights assessments and treatments for vascular dysfunction in children.
- Open AccessDevelopment of a Curricular Framework for Pediatric Hospital Medicine FellowshipsKaren E. Jerardi, Erin Fisher, Caroline Rassbach, Jennifer Maniscalco, Rebecca Blankenburg, Lindsay Chase, Neha Shah, on behalf of the Council of Pediatric Hospital Medicine Fellowship DirectorsPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170698; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0698
PHM fellowship directors have developed a standardized curricular framework for 2-year fellowship in PHM.
- Open AccessControversy About Dialysis for an AdolescentTyler Tate, Aviva Goldberg, Aaron Wightman, Bradley A. Warady, John D. LantosPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20170327; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0327
An adolescent would rather die than be dialyzed through her fistula. Doctors think any other route would be too dangerous. Should they let her die?
- Open AccessBest Fed Beginnings: A Nationwide Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase BreastfeedingLori Feldman-Winter, Jennifer Ustianov, Julius Anastasio, Sue Butts-Dion, Patricia Heinrich, Anne Merewood, Kimarie Bugg, Sarah Donohue-Rolfe, Charles J. HomerPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163121; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3121
A nationwide QI initiative, entitled Best Fed Beginnings, nearly doubled the number of Baby-Friendly–designated hospitals in the United States and increased breastfeeding.
- Open AccessReducing Unnecessary Imaging for Patients With Constipation in the Pediatric Emergency DepartmentCatherine Craun Ferguson, Matthew P. Gray, Melissa Diaz, Kevin P. BoydPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162290; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2290
As part of a broader aim to improve the effectiveness of care by decreasing unnecessary imaging tests, we looked at utilization rates of abdominal radiographs.
- Open AccessImplementation of Instrument-Based Vision Screening for Preschool-Age Children in Primary CareJonathan R. Modest, Katherine M. Majzoub, Bruce Moore, Vijeta Bhambhani, Sarah R. McLaughlin, Louis VernacchioPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20163745; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3745
This QI project examines the effectiveness of instrument-based vision screening for preschool-aged children in the primary care setting.
- Open AccessA 3-Week-Old With an Isolated “Blueberry Muffin” RashJohn B. Darby, Gregory Valentine, Kirsty Hillier, Raegan Hunt, C. Mary Healy, Valeria Smith, Wendy Allen-RhoadesPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162598; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2598
A 3-week-old infant presents to the hospital with 1 week of a “blueberry muffin” skin rash. Our panel of experts discusses diagnostic considerations.
- Open AccessCase Report of a Hypobaric Chamber Fitness to Fly Test in a Child With Severe Cystic Lung DiseaseSarah Loo, Andrew Campbell, Julian Vyas, Naveen PillarisettiPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162376; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2376
This case report describes the use of a hypobaric chamber in assessing fitness to fly in a child with severe cystic lung disease.
- Open AccessFingertip Capillary Malformation and Associated Disorders: Report of 9 CasesJuan Carlos López-Gutiérrez, Pedro Redondo, Marta IvarsPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162967; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2967
This report describes a series of 9 patients with CMs strikingly located on the fingertips associated with LVMs and with varying degrees of overgrowth.
- Open AccessAcquired Resistance to Corticotropin Therapy in Nephrotic Syndrome: Role of De Novo Neutralizing AntibodyPei Wang, Yan Zhang, Yu Wang, Andrew S. Brem, Zhangsuo Liu, Rujun GongPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20162169; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2169
This case report tests the effectiveness of short-acting corticotropin for refractory nephrotic syndrome, and through translational research, unravels the puzzle of acquired resistance to corticotropin therapy.
- Open AccessCholestasis and Hepatic Iron Deposition in an Infant With Complex Glycerol Kinase DeficiencyDiana Montoya-Williams, Meredith MowitzPediatrics Jul 2017, 140 (1) e20161479; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1479
This case illustrates the combined phenotype of adrenal insufficiency, muscular dystrophy, and pseudohypertriglyceridemia seen in complex glycerol kinase deficiency, and highlights hepatic siderosis as a previously undescribed association.