Preterm Cognitive Function Into Adulthood
Children born very preterm (VP) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for cognitive deficits and low IQ in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that IQ discrepancies between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals are still found in adulthood.
Development of cognitive function is more stable for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals from infancy into adulthood and can be predicted fairly well from age 20 months onward. However, when adults with cognitive impairment are excluded, group differences in stability disappear.
Late Preterm Infants and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Kindergarten
Late preterm infants, compared with full-term infants, have less proficiency in reading and math at school age, with increased need for individualized educational plans and special education services. They also have lower cognitive performance on standardized IQ exams.
Late preterm infants have worse outcomes at school entry, and development is variable during the preschool years, so socioeconomic status, language spoken in the home, maternal education, maternal race, and being a late preterm infant have a large impact.
Costs of Venous Thromboembolism, Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection, and Pressure Ulcer
In adults, there is significant increased length of stay, cost, and/or resource use associated with hospital-acquired conditions. Less is known about the epidemiology and impact of many hospital-acquired conditions in pediatric populations.
We find increased pediatric length of stay and costs due to venous thromboembolism and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This is essential information for hospital administrators and safety departments who are planning interventions to reduce harm associated with these hospital-acquired conditions.
Suicide Attempts and Childhood Maltreatment Among Street Youth: A Prospective Cohort Study
Street youth demonstrate elevated mortality compared with the general adolescent and young adult population. Suicide is a leading cause of death among street youth. Many street youth have experienced childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect.
In this prospective cohort of street youth, self-reported attempted suicide and history of childhood maltreatment were common. Individuals who experienced childhood physical abuse, emotional abuse, or emotional neglect were at highest risk of attempting suicide.
Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Treatment Nonadherence Among Medically Vulnerable Youth
Increasing percentages of youth are living with chronic medical conditions. Although adolescents face peak risks for onset and intensification of alcohol and marijuana use, we know little about these behaviors and their associations with treatment adherence among chronically ill youth.
This study quantifies alcohol and marijuana use behaviors among a heterogeneous sample of chronically ill youth in aggregate and by condition, and measures associations between alcohol use/binge drinking and knowledge about alcohol interactions with medications/laboratory tests and also treatment nonadherence.
Global Health Education in US Pediatric Residency Programs
In response to growing demand from trainees, many pediatric residency programs offer global health (GH) experiences for their residents. There is diversity in what is offered at programs across the country.
This is the most comprehensive assessment of US pediatric residency training opportunities in GH. These opportunities are prevalent and increasingly formalized as tracks. However there remain gaps in universal pretravel preparation and coordination across GH partnerships nationally.
Home Reading Environment and Brain Activation in Preschool Children Listening to Stories
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends parent-child reading from infancy through at least kindergarten, the span of maximal brain growth. Home literacy environment, including reading behaviors and access to books, has been shown to promote oral language and print concepts.
Home reading environment is positively associated with activation of brain areas supporting narrative comprehension and mental imagery in preschool children. This offers novel insight into the neurobiological foundations of emergent literacy and potential effect of shared reading during early childhood.
Inappropriate Use of Ultrasound in Management of Pediatric Cryptorchidism
The value of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning of cryptorchidism is limited at best.
Ultrasound remains grossly overused by referring physicians throughout Ontario, Canada, which resulted in a 3-month delay to definitive surgery and unnecessary expenditures.
The Impact of Rudeness on Medical Team Performance: A Randomized Trial
Rudeness is routinely experienced by hospital-based medical teams. Individuals exposed to mildly rude behavior perform poorly on cognitive tasks, exhibit reduced creativity and flexibility, and are less helpful and prosocial.
Rudeness had adverse consequences on diagnostic and procedural performance of members of the NICU medical teams. Information-sharing mediated the adverse effect of rudeness on diagnostic performance, and help-seeking mediated the effect of rudeness on procedural performance.
Congenital Heart Defects and Receipt of Special Education Services
Poor neurocognitive outcomes are associated with some types of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Guidelines for developmental screening for children with CHDs have been published. Population-based information on special education services needed among children with CHDs is limited.
Children in metropolitan Atlanta with congenital heart defects (CHDs) received special education services more often than children without birth defects. These findings highlight the need for special education services and the importance of developmental screening for all children with CHDs.
Risk of Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Bilirubin Exchange Transfusion Thresholds
High bilirubin levels are associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Exchange transfusions are recommended when bilirubin levels reach certain thresholds. However, the relative and excess risks of hearing loss in infants with bilirubin levels at/above exchange transfusion thresholds are unknown.
In this Northern California population of term and late preterm infants, elevated bilirubin levels were not associated with an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss unless the levels were at least 10 mg/dL above exchange transfusion thresholds.
Unmet Health Care Need in US Adolescents and Adult Health Outcomes
Unmet health care need in adolescence is associated with poor contemporaneous health outcomes. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as an important stage of the life-course, when there may be a significant opportunity for health care interventions to improve later health outcomes.
The odds of adverse adult health outcomes were 13% to 52% higher among subjects who had reported unmet health care need in adolescence, compared with subjects with similar adolescent health outcomes, insurance coverage, and sociodemographic background but no unmet need.
Eye Protection and Risk of Eye Injuries in High School Field Hockey
A previous national study conducted over 2 seasons by this group of authors demonstrated the effectiveness of mandated protective eyewear in reducing eye/orbital, concussive, and head/facial injuries in high school girls' field hockey.
Data collected from regional/national high school sports injury surveillance databases by certified athletic trainers over 4 seasons has shown that nationally mandated protective eyewear results in a greater than 3-fold reduced risk of eye/orbital injuries in girls playing high school field hockey.
Pediatric Professional Medical Associations and Industry Guideline Compliance
There has been increasing legislative and regulatory focus on the relationships of pediatric prescribers and industry. Pediatric professional medical association (PMA) and industry relationships, however, are relatively unstudied and lack a systematic method of assessment.
This cross-sectional study used a new quantitative scale, the industry relationship index, to systematically rate 9 pediatric PMAs with respect to best practice guidelines on interactions with the biomedical industry, revealing significant variation in PMA practices.
Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention Deficit
Attention is a prerequisite for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning, having a crucial role in academic and social child development. Children with traumatic brain injury have pronounced deficits in attention, but the nature and consequences of these deficits remain unclear.
Lapses of attention represent a core attention deficit after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury with risk factors for complicated traumatic brain injury, or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury. Importantly, lapses of attention explain the relation between intelligence and parent-rated attention problems.
Infection-Related Hospitalization in Childhood and Adult Metabolic Outcomes
Childhood inflammatory mediators are associated with adult obesity, but the stimuli that initiate and perpetuate chronic inflammation start in early life are largely unknown.
Childhood infection-related hospitalization was independently associated with adverse adult metabolic variables, which suggests that infections and/or their treatment in childhood may contribute to causal pathways leading to adult cardiometabolic diseases.
Coadministration of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine With Meningococcal and Tdap Vaccines
Previous studies have shown that concomitant administration of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine with MCV4 and Tdap was generally well tolerated and did not interfere with the immune responses to the respective vaccines.
Concomitant administration of the novel 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine with MCV4 and Tdap, 2 vaccines that are currently recommended for routine vaccination of adolescents, did not compromise the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the individual vaccines.
Computed Tomography and Shifts to Alternate Imaging Modalities in Hospitalized Children
Concern of the risk of malignancy from ionizing radiation has prompted many to advocate for judicious use of computed tomography (CT) and as low as necessary radiation doses administered per scan. Recent analysis has shown a decline in CT utilization.
We identified decreases in CT utilization between 2004 and 2012 for the 10 most common diagnostic groups receiving CT. Decreases were typically associated with increases in alternate imaging modalities. We provide a possible reason for the decrease in CT utilization.
Psychological and Psychosocial Impairment in Preschoolers With Selective Eating
Selective eating is a common, burdensome eating pattern in young children. A significant subset remain selective eaters at least until adolescence and, for some, adulthood. The question is whether selective eating is a serious enough developmental pattern to warrant intervention.
This study examines whether selective eating, at 2 levels of severity, is associated with current and future psychological problems. Because moderate levels of selective eating were associated with impairment, selective eating falls within the diagnosis of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.
Parent/Adolescent Weight Status Concordance and Parent Feeding Practices
Research has shown that parent feeding practices are associated with adolescent weight status and dietary intake. It is unknown whether certain factors such as parent and child weight status concordance or discordance influence parents’ use of specific feeding practices.
Findings from the current study suggest that parents use the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices when parents and adolescents are both nonoverweight and the highest levels of food restriction when parents and adolescents are both overweight/obese.
Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Infants born very prematurely or with a very low birth weight are known to have an increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results concerning late preterm children are controversial and studies examining fetal growth represented by weight for gestational age are scarce.
We demonstrate that each declining week of gestation increases the risk of ADHD. Also, late preterm infants have an increased risk. Furthermore, as weight for gestational age becomes smaller than 1 SD below the mean, the risk of ADHD increases.
Concurrent Respiratory Viruses and Kawasaki Disease
Making a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is often a diagnostic dilemma. This dilemma is confounded when children present with symptoms consistent with known, common respiratory viruses and/or with KD symptoms that could potentially be attributed to a respiratory virus.
Patients with KD commonly have a concurrent respiratory viral infection. Clinicians should not dismiss the diagnosis of KD based on the presence of respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, a positive respiratory virus test result should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of KD.
Outcome of Patients Initiating Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis During the First Year of Life
Historically, children with end-stage renal disease who initiated chronic dialysis during the first year of life were far less likely to survive or successfully receive a kidney transplant compared with those who initiated chronic dialysis at older ages.
In recent years, survival has improved markedly among children who initiate chronic peritoneal dialysis at <1 year of age. Among those infants who initiate dialysis after the neonatal period and later undergo kidney transplantation, graft survival has improved as well.
Incidence, Trends, and Survival of Children With Embryonal Tumors
Embryonal tumors occur almost exclusively in children. The group is heterogeneous and includes relatively common pediatric tumors as well as rare tumors. The incidence rate for hepatoblastoma has been increasing in some countries.
This population-based study is the first comprehensive study on embryonal tumors in German children. Incidence rates, trends, and survival for 1991 through 2012 are presented. A statistically significant increasing trend for hepatoblastoma was detected for the first time in Europe.
Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status
Subjective social status (SSS), a person’s sense of their or their family’s position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to adult health but is not a robust predictor of adolescent health. Developmental trajectories of SSS underlying this discrepancy are unknown.
Five SSS trajectories are present in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Four stably reflect objective socioeconomic status. The fifth represents a subset of socially disadvantaged youth with “rose-colored glasses” early on. Lower SSS and membership in the fifth trajectory increase health risk.
Sensitivity of the Automated Auditory Brainstem Response in Neonatal Hearing Screening
Adding second-stage automated auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing for infants who failed the initial OAE test in a two-stage neonatal hearing screening has been shown to reduce false referrals to the hearing clinic.
Infants with hearing loss may be missed by a 2-stage hearing screening because they pass the automated ABR test. In our study, a significant number of infants with hearing loss >45 decibel hearing level passed screening with automated ABR.
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- Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics