Physical Punishment and Mental Disorders: Results From a Nationally Representative US Sample
Physical punishment is associated with aggression, delinquency, and internalizing conditions in childhood, as well as a range of Axis I mental disorders in adulthood. More research is needed on the possible long-term relationship between physical punishment and mental health.
To our knowledge, this is the first nationally representative examination of physical punishment and a range of Axis I and II disorders, gender interactions, and proportion of mental disorders in the general population that may be attributable to physical punishment.
Prevalence of Abusive Injuries in Siblings and Household Contacts of Physically Abused Children
Siblings and other contacts of abused children, especially twins, are thought to be at higher risk for abuse than other children. However, the rate at which screening tests identify injuries in contacts is currently unknown.
Contacts of abused children with serious injuries have fractures identified on skeletal survey at significant rates. Twins are at substantially increased risk for fracture. Physical examination findings were not sensitive for fractures.
Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Counselors’ Perceptions and Practices
Adolescent dating violence has been studied from the perpetrators' and survivors' perspectives. The risk and protective factors have been explored, and the strength of the association of these factors with adolescent dating violence has been adequately described.
This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school counselors on adolescent dating violence. Knowing school personnel’s practices and perceptions may help researchers and practitioners gain insights into possible ways to alleviate the problem of dating violence in adolescents.
Respiratory Tract Illnesses During the First Year of Life: Effect of Dog and Cat Contacts
Respiratory infectious symptoms are common during the first year of life. Day care attendance, older siblings, and lack of breastfeeding have been considered as possible factors influencing early respiratory tract infections.
Children with early dog contacts seem to have fewer infectious respiratory symptoms and diseases, especially otitis, during the first year of life.
Influence of Smoking Cues in Movies on Children’s Beliefs About Smoking
This research presents the first 2 experimental studies on the short-term effects of smoking portrayal in movies on children’s beliefs about smoking.
Exposure to movie smoking from cartoon and family-oriented movies had no effect on implicit associations toward smoking. For smoking beliefs, effects were again small and only statistically significant for social norms regarding smoking.
Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking
The US Surgeon General has determined that the relationship between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and youth smoking is causal; however, it is not known whether movie rating influences how adolescents respond.
The response to PG-13–rated MSE was indistinguishable from R-rated MSE. An R rating for smoking could reduce smoking onset in the United States by 18% (by eliminating PG-13 MSE), an effect similar to making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting.
Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Events in Young Infants During Bed-sharing
Sudden infant death syndrome remains the major cause of postneonatal death in developed countries. Although infant-parent bed-sharing following antenatal smoking or maternal consumption of alcohol on the bed-sharing night increases the risk of death, the mechanism is not known.
Bed-sharing infants experienced more oxygen desaturations and episodes of carbon dioxide rebreathing than cot-sleeping infants but showed appropriate behavioral and physiologic responses. A deficit in these responses in vulnerable infants could link to increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
Child and Adolescent Abuse in Relation to Obesity in Adulthood: The Black Women’s Health Study
Childhood abuse has been associated with obesity risk in adulthood. Little is known regarding the impact of abuse severity on risk, potential mechanisms are poorly understood, and few studies have been conducted among minority populations.
Severity of child/teenager physical and sexual abuse is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and/or central adiposity in adulthood. These are the first such findings in a large cohort of US black women.
Food Insecurity and Obesogenic Maternal Infant Feeding Styles and Practices in Low-Income Families
Food insecurity has been linked to childhood obesity in a number of studies. Few studies have explored potential pathways through which food insecurity is related to child weight, especially in low-income families with young infants.
We found that food insecurity was related to maternal controlling feeding styles and concerns about the infants’ future weight. Early obesity prevention should aim to decrease food insecurity and to reduce controlling feeding styles in families who remain food insecure.
Long-term Clinical Outcome After Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Childhood
Persistent facial nerve palsy is a well-described neurologic deficit after Lyme neuroborreliosis and occurs in 13% to 20% of children. Other neurologic deficits are less closely described. Nonspecific subjective symptoms are reported as often among patients as controls in previous short-term follow-up studies.
Persistent neurologic deficits, other than facial nerve palsy, were found in 14% of patients, causing impaired fine motor skills, poor balance, or persistent pain. Nonspecific subjective symptoms were reported as often among patients as controls in this long-term follow-up study and should not be considered as sequelae after Lyme neuroborreliosis.
The Differential Impact of Delivery Hospital on the Outcomes of Premature Infants
Data suggest that delivery at high-volume, high-technology hospitals reduces neonatal mortality. No study has examined other complications or compared the effects in multiple states by using a study design to control for unmeasured differences in case mix.
The survival benefit to delivering at a high-level NICU between 1995 and 2005 is larger than previously reported and varies between states. The survival benefits affect both extremely and moderately preterm infants. Complication rates were similar between hospital types.
The Prevalence and Course of Idiopathic Toe-Walking in 5-Year-Old Children
Children without any underlying medical condition who walk on their toes are referred to as idiopathic toe-walkers. The prevalence and early course of idiopathic toe-walking are unknown.
This study establishes the prevalence and early spontaneous course of idiopathic toe-walking in a large, well-defined cohort of 5.5-year-old children.
Pediatric Versus Adult Drug Trials for Conditions With High Pediatric Disease Burden
Many drugs are not approved for use in pediatric patients and there is limited evidence on their safety and efficacy in children. Furthermore, there is concern that the quality of pediatric trials is inferior compared with adult trials.
For conditions with a high disease burden in children, only a small proportion of clinical drug trials study pediatric patients. Most pediatric trials are not funded by industry, and the deficiency of evidence is largest in developing countries.
The Experience of Families With Children With Trisomy 13 and 18 in Social Networks
Trisomy 13 and 18 are conditions with 1-year survival rates of less than 10% and have traditionally been treated with palliative care. There are increasing reports of ethical dilemmas caused by parental requests for clinical interventions.
Parents who belong to social networks report an enriching family experience and describe surviving children as happy. Many of these parents describe challenging encounters with health care providers.
Family Experiences and Pediatric Health Services Use Associated With Family-Centered Rounds
Family-centered rounds (FCR) show promise for higher patient care satisfaction. Many previous studies are limited by small sample size and observational or pre-post designs, and health care service outcomes have not been previously examined.
Our study uses an FCR assessment tool and a comparison group of non-FCR patients. We found that FCR are associated with improved family experiences, with no additional burden to health care service use.
Racial Disparity Trends in Children’s Dental Visits: US National Health Interview Survey, 1964–2010
Various studies have documented marked racial/ethnic disparities in children’s receipt of dental services at single time points or brief periods.
This study reveals significant improvements in children’s receipt of dental care overall, as well as a dramatic narrowing of African American/white disparities in children’s receipt of dental services over the last 40 years in the United States.
Vaccine-Type Human Papillomavirus and Evidence of Herd Protection After Vaccine Introduction
Clinical trials have demonstrated that prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly effective in preventing HPV infection, but the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence rates in real-world, community settings is uncertain.
This study provides evidence of a substantial decrease in the prevalence of vaccine-type HPV among young women and evidence of herd protection in a community only 4 years after the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was licensed.
Academic Achievement Varies With Gestational Age Among Children Born at Term
Late preterm infants are at risk for a variety of developmental impairments; however, little is known about developmental differences among children born within the term range of 37 to 41 weeks’ gestation.
This study links comprehensive birth record data from 128 050 term births to children’s school records 8 years later. Analyses establish that, even among the “normal term” range, gestational age is an important independent predictor of academic achievement.
Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children
Moderately preterm-born children (32–356/7 weeks’ gestation) are at risk for both neonatal morbidities after birth and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the developmental delays of this particular group.
Of all neonatal morbidities commonly seen in moderately preterm-born children, only hypoglycemia increased the risk of developmental delay after moderately preterm birth. A concerted effort to prevent hypoglycemia after birth might enhance developmental outcome in this group.
Adherence to PALS Sepsis Guidelines and Hospital Length of Stay
Adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support resuscitation guidelines for children with sepsis is low; however, few studies have been conducted in the tertiary care emergency department setting.
Adherence to septic shock guidelines in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department is low. Adherence to fluid guidelines and the entire PALS algorithm was associated with a shorter hospital length of stay.
Two-Year Follow-Up of an Adolescent Behavioral Weight Control Intervention
Comprehensive lifestyle interventions for adolescent weight management, including diet, physical activity, and behavioral intervention, have been found to demonstrate modest, short-term success. However, very little is known about the long-term effectiveness of adolescent behavioral weight management trials.
This randomized controlled trial demonstrates that two 16-week group-based behavioral weight loss programs, when combined with either aerobic exercise or peer-based adventure therapy, produced sustained improvements in BMI among overweight/obese adolescents through 24 months.
Prospective Association of Common Eating Disorders and Adverse Outcomes
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder diagnosis. Binge eating disorder, 1 type of EDNOS, is associated with obesity among adults. Little is known about the health outcomes associated with other types of EDNOS.
This is the first study to evaluate the prospective association of full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, purging disorder, and other EDNOSs with specific mental and physical health outcomes.
Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status
Among adolescents, weight status has been inversely associated with sports participation but not active commuting or physical education. Studies of each form of physical activity have not included adequate adjustments for other physical activities, previous body weight, or diet quality.
Estimates indicate overweight/obesity and obesity prevalence would decrease by 11% and 26%, respectively, if adolescents played on at least 2 sports teams per year; obesity prevalence would decrease by 22% if adolescents walked/biked to school 4–5 days per week.
Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Problem Behavior in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children
In humans, evidence for an association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and alterations in fetal brain development with persistent alterations in the offspring’s brain and behavior in later life is inconclusive.
Prenatal caffeine intake is not associated with a higher risk for behavior problems in young children. Results do not provide evidence to advise pregnant women to reduce their caffeine intake to prevent problem behavior in their children.
Early Growth of Infantile Hemangiomas: What Parents’ Photographs Tell Us
Infantile hemangiomas have a period of rapid growth in early infancy. Most hemangioma growth is completed by 5 months of age, but the majority of patients are not seen by a specialist until after the growth phase is complete.
The most rapid hemangioma growth is between 1 and 2 months of life, much earlier than previously believed. Patients with high-risk hemangiomas should be followed closely, and treatment initiation should be considered before or during the most rapid growth phase.
The HEADS-ED: A Rapid Mental Health Screening Tool for Pediatric Patients in the Emergency Department
The American Academy of Pediatrics prioritized detection of mental illness in children presenting to emergency departments (ED) by using standardized clinical tools. Only a minority of ED physicians indicate that they use evidence-based screening methods to assess mental health concerns.
This study presents the psychometrics of the HEADS ED (home, education, activities/peers, drugs/alcohol, suicidality, emotions/behavior, discharge resources), a brief, standardized screening tool for pediatric EDs. This tool ensures key information is obtained for decision-making, determining acuity level, and areas of need.
Dental Composite Restorations and Psychosocial Function in Children
Dental composites composed of bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives are common alternatives to amalgam, but may release BPA. Gestational BPA exposure has been associated with poorer behavior in children. A safety trial of amalgam found worse psychosocial outcomes for children randomized to composites.
In the trial, greater exposure to bisphenol-A-glycidyl-methacrylate-based dental composite in children aged 6 to 10 years was associated with worse self-reported psychosocial functioning at 5-year follow-up. There were no such associations with exposure to dental amalgam or urethane-dimethacrylate-based polyacid-modified composite (compomer).
The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Macromastia is associated with severe physical and emotional symptoms and negatively impacts health-related quality of life in adult women. Reduction mammaplasty is the most effective treatment for adults. Little is known regarding the impact of macromastia during adolescence.
Adolescents with macromastia have impaired health-related quality of life, lower self-esteem, more breast-related symptoms, and are at higher risk for disordered eating in comparison with their peers. These negative health outcomes have implications for early intervention in this patient population.
Misclassification of Newborns Due to Systematic Error in Plotting Birth Weight Percentile Values
Percentile charts for birth weight are used to assess the somatic development of neonates (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age).
A systematic error was identified in the majority of birth weight percentile charts. As a consequence, small for gestational age rates are overestimated and large for gestational age rates are underestimated; ∼5% of neonates are misclassified.
Dose-Response Relationship of Phototherapy for Hyperbilirubinemia
A dose-response relationship exists between light irradiance and decrease of total serum bilirubin concentration (TsB) at relatively low irradiances. It has been questioned whether by increasing irradiance a “saturation point” exists, above which no further decrease of TsB is seen.
We found a linear relation between light irradiance in the range of 20 to 55 μW/cm2/nm and decrease in TsB after 24 hours of therapy, with no evidence of a saturation point.
Local Macroeconomic Trends and Hospital Admissions for Child Abuse, 2000–2009
Although the impact of changes in the economy on child physical abuse rates is not well understood, there is concern that increased numbers of children may have been victims of physical abuse as a result of the recent economic recession.
Results of this study demonstrate that the rate of admissions for physical abuse to pediatric hospitals has increased during the past 10 years and suggest an association between that increase and the housing mortgage crisis.
Duration of Protection of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Nicaragua
Rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower in low-income settings with the highest child mortality due to diarrhea. In recently published clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines in Africa, waning of efficacy was also noted among children aged ≥1 year.
These data offer the first evidence of the duration of protection of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease after routine use of the vaccine in a developing country setting.
Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality Among Children With Tuberculosis: The 25-Year Experience in Peru
Because most childhood tuberculosis cases are sputum smear-negative, diagnosis relies largely upon clinical presentation, tuberculin skin testing, and chest radiograph. Diagnostic limitations contribute to treatment delays and high mortality. However, childhood tuberculosis (TB) mortality risk factors are not well documented.
This study demonstrates that false-negative TST is common in children with active TB and is associated with increased risk of death. A negative TST should not delay anti-TB therapy. Improved diagnostic modalities are urgently needed in resource-limited settings.
Economic Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes
Sudden cardiac death in young athletes is an uncommon but devastating event. Addition of routine electrocardiogram (ECG) screening to standard preparticipation care may reduce the number of sudden deaths. Lack of data regarding effectiveness and costs has prevented widespread implementation.
Adding ECG screening to current preparticipation evaluation is not cost-effective. Cost is driven primarily by the evaluation of the large number of false-positive findings. An ECG-only screening strategy is more cost-effective.
Prevalence and Correlates of Low Fundamental Movement Skill Competency in Children
Children’s mastery of fundamental movement skills is correlated with a number of health benefits, including higher levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, perceived scholastic and athletic competence, and lower levels of overweight.
This is the first study to examine the associations between low skill competence (a new and novel way to report motor skills) and a range of health-related and sociodemographic factors in a large representative sample of children and youth.
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- Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics