Association Between Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults' Self-reported Abstinence
The extent to which young adults' laboratory-confirmed sexually transmitted disease results and self-reported sexual behaviors are consistent has not been assessed in a nationally representative sample.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether young adults' reports of recent sexual behavior (presence of penile/vaginal sex in the previous 12 months) correspond with the presence of laboratory-confirmed nonviral STDs assessed by nucleic acid amplification testing.
A Parent-Led Family-Focused Treatment Program for Overweight Children Aged 5 to 9 Years: The PEACH RCT
For treatment of obesity in preadolescent children, approaches that focus on parents taking sole responsibility for implementing weight-management strategies may be most effective. However, the optimal content, intensity, and duration of programs for obese children remain unclear.
Targeting parents only, a 10% relative weight loss is achievable in moderately obese preadolescent children and can be maintained 2 years from baseline, which justifies an investment in treatment as a secondary obesity-prevention strategy.
Fish-Oil Fat Emulsion Supplementation May Reduce the Risk of Severe Retinopathy in VLBW Infants
Docosahexaenoic acid is important for fetal brain development and visual acuity in infants. Infants born prematurely are at particular risk for docosahexaenoic acid insufficiency because they may not have benefited from a full trimester of the mother's lipid stores.
This is the first study in which the administration of fish-oil lipid emulsion in very low birth weight infants from the first day of life is described. The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsion on the regression of retinopathy seems to be worthy of further investigation.
Infants Perceived as “Fussy” Are More Likely to Receive Complementary Foods Before 4 Months
Several qualitative studies have revealed that caregivers use infant fussing as a cue for beginning complementary feeding (CF). Despite a higher prevalence of early CF among black infants, few studies have quantitatively examined the role of maternal perception of infant fussiness.
Results of this study show that in a cohort of low-income, black, first-time mothers, early CF was highly prevalent and that maternal perception of infant temperament, breastfeeding, and maternal obesity and depression were important factors related to early CF.
Varicella-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000–2006: The 1-Dose Varicella Vaccination Era
A number of studies have examined the early impact of the varicella vaccination program on varicella-related hospitalizations and have found evidence of decline after vaccine implementation.
This study further documents the continued decline in varicella-related hospitalizations during the 1-dose varicella vaccination era and demonstrates statistically significant declines of >65% in all age groups. These data suggest that varicella vaccination prevented ∼50 000 hospitalizations from 2000 to 2006.
Closely Spaced Pregnancies Are Associated With Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births
Autism has been associated with pregnancy and birth complications that may indicate a suboptimal prenatal environment. Although the interpregnancy interval (IPI) may affect the prenatal environment, the association between the IPI and risk for autism is not known.
Using full-sibling pairs from a large population, the authors examined the association between autism and IPIs. Second-born children conceived after an IPI of <12 months had more than threefold increased odds of autism relative to those with IPIs of ≥36 months.
Does Fellowship Pay: What Is the Long-term Financial Impact of Subspecialty Training in Pediatrics?
No studies have focused on the financial impact of fellowship training in pediatrics.
The results from this study can be helpful to current pediatric residents as they contemplate their career options. In addition, the study may be valuable to policy makers who evaluate health care reform and pediatric workforce-allocation issues.
Early Experiences and Predictors of Recruitment Success for the National Children's Study
The National Children's Study, a large-scale, longitudinal, birth cohort study of US children that endeavors to identify preventable and environmental origins of chronic diseases, has begun recruitment.
In a highly diverse, urban setting, pregnant women can be recruited to participate in the National Children's Study at rates similar to those obtained in clinic settings. Refinements to the pregnancy screener and other components are needed to optimize implementation.
Hearing Screening in a Well-Infant Nursery: Profile of Automated ABR-Fail/OAE-Pass
Combined auditory brainstem response/otoacoustic emission testing is used to screen for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which leads to failure to develop normal auditory behavior and oral language. Prevalence estimates have been obtained for infants in NICUs.
ANSD risk in well-infant nurseries has not been examined. This study contributes ANSD prevalence estimates for infants admitted to well-infant nurseries and compares the costs of 2 different 2-technology screening protocols.
Parental Understanding of Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis After a Negative Sweat-Test
The current standard of care includes informing women about prenatal testing and newborn screening for cystic fibrosis and providing genetic counseling to parents whose child is referred for sweat-testing. Despite counseling, early data identified some persistent confusion about residual risk.
Prenatal discussions about carrier testing and newborn screening for cystic fibrosis are not routine. Parental anxiety about abnormal results from a screen is decreased after speaking to a genetic counselor when scheduling the sweat test. Despite counseling, residual risk continues to be poorly understood.
Maternal Resolution of Grief After Preterm Birth: Implications for Infant Attachment Security
For mothers of children with chronic medical conditions or disabilities, such as epilepsy or cerebral palsy, a history of maternal unresolved grief regarding the child's diagnosis has been associated with insecure infant-mother attachment.
Unresolved grief related to a preterm birth is associated with the development of insecure infant-mother attachment. Mothers with resolved grief after preterm birth are 2.9 times as likely to have securely attached infants, compared with mothers with unresolved grief.
Distribution of and Mortality From Serious Congenital Heart Disease in Very Low Birth Weight Infants
There have been no previous large studies of congenital heart disease in very low birth weight infants.
This study characterized the frequency, mortality rate, and lesion distribution of serious congenital heart disease in very low birth weight infants by using a large international multicenter database.
Noninvasive Ventilation for Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has been the initial respiratory support for many preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) seems to increase the beneficial effects of NCPAP by combining it with ventilatory inflations.
This study suggests that NIPPV, as an intial respiratory support for preterm infants with RDS, is feasible and safe and may have beneficial effects, when compared with NCPAP.
A Prospective Study of the Effects of Optimism on Adolescent Health Risks
Optimism later in life is protective against a range of health problems. It has commonly been a focus in adolescent mental health promotion. Cross-sectional studies suggest a protective effect against adolescent health risks, but prospective studies have been lacking.
Optimism is somewhat protective against adolescent health risks; the strongest effect was seen against the onset of new depressive symptoms. Its protective effect against heavier substance use and antisocial behavior was modest and only for the highest categories compared to the lowest. Promoting optimism along with other positive aspects of psychological and emotional style has a role in mental health promotion that is likely to be enhanced if an intervention also addresses risk and protective factors in an adolescent's social context.
Professionalism Expectations Seen Through the Eyes of Resident Physicians and Patient Families
The professionalism of physicians can have an impact on patient care and satisfaction and physician career success and is increasingly emphasized in residency training programs.
This study was an examination of the perspectives of families of pediatric patients and of pediatrics residents on the attributes of professionalism in physicians. Important overlaps were found between the attributes of professionalism prioritized by patient families and resident physicians.
Adjunct Corticosteroids in Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Corticosteroids inhibit the expression of many proinflammatory cytokines released during the course of community-acquired pneumonia infection. Corticosteroids have been found in some studies to be associated with improved clinical outcomes in adults with pneumonia. No studies have investigated corticosteroid use in children with pneumonia.
Results showed that corticosteroid treatment in children with pneumonia is common and its use is highly variable across institutions. Although corticosteroid therapy may benefit children with acute wheezing treated with β-agonists, corticosteroid therapy may lead to worse outcomes for children without wheezing.
Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Hospital-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children
Approximately 27% of children with rotavirus in the hospital acquire it while hospitalized for another condition. Pediatric rotavirus vaccination greatly decreased the number of children hospitalized with rotavirus from 2007 to 2008.
Routine community-based rotavirus infant vaccination protects hospitalized children from acquiring rotavirus. Thus, community-based vaccination efforts should be encouraged as a strategy to decrease hospital-acquired rotavirus.
Cigarette Advertising and Teen Smoking Initiation
It has been well documented that exposure to tobacco marketing is a risk factor for smoking initiation among youth. However, few studies have tested the specificity of this association.
This study extends findings from other studies and shows (from a longitudinal design) that exposure to cigarette advertising is significantly associated with youth smoking initiation, whereas exposure to advertising for other commercial products is not.
Cost-effectiveness of Outpatient Management for Febrile Neutropenia in Children With Cancer
Febrile neutropenia is a common complication in children with cancer. Traditionally, even low-risk episodes have been managed entirely in an inpatient setting, and discharge of the patients has been delayed until resolution of fever and sustainable hematopoietic recovery.
The results of this decision-analytic model evaluating low-risk febrile neutropenia episodes suggest that the substantially higher costs of inpatient management cannot be justified on the basis of safety and efficacy considerations or patient/parent preferences. Uncertainty remains whether intravenous or oral treatment might be the preferable route of drug administration in an ambulatory setting.
Prospective Assessment of Practice Pattern Variations in the Treatment of Pediatric Gastroenteritis
Although gastroenteritis guidelines describe the need to perform oral rehydration, it remains underused, resulting in excessive use of intravenous rehydration. Other interventions, such as antiemetic administration, vary according to location, often resulting in differences in cost and outcomes.
In this nationwide cohort, intravenous rehydration use varied dramatically. Use was associated with the institution providing care and an increase in the need for future health care provider visits. Use of ondansetron also varied significantly across Canada.
Risk Stratification of Children Being Evaluated for Intussusception
Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in young children. To date, there have been no prospective studies that have been able to develop a reliable clinical prediction model to determine which patients are at low risk for intussusception.
This study is the largest prospective cohort study to date to evaluate children with possible intussusception. It includes both univariate and multivariate analyses to develop clinical prediction models for patients at low risk for intussusception.
Intima-Media Thickness and Flow-Mediated Dilatation in the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults
Adults born at very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1.5 kg) have higher blood pressure and higher fasting insulin levels than their peers born at term. However, they show no signs of endothelial dysfunction in childhood and in adolescence.
Adults born at a VLBW showed no endothelial dysfunction compared with term adults. They had, however, a thicker intima-media layer in relation to lumen size. More rapid growth during their first weeks of life was associated with better endothelial function.
Clustering of Risk Factors: A Simple Method of Detecting Cardiovascular Disease in Youth
Cardiovascular risk factors predict the development of premature atherosclerosis. As the number of risk factors increases, so does the extent of these lesions. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors is an accepted practice in adults but is not used in pediatrics.
In this study, the authors discuss how the presence of ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors is associated with vascular changes in adolescents. The findings were compared with the Patholobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth risk score to demonstrate that a simple method of clustering is a reliable tool to use in clinical practice.
Pathological Video Game Use Among Youths: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study
Several correlational studies documented that participants who would be classified as “pathological” video gamers demonstrate a pattern of correlations with other variables that are comorbid (eg, depression) or occur with (eg, poorer grades and increased hostility) other addictions.
Following a large sample across 2 years, this study provides needed data on risk factors for becoming a pathological gamer, how long pathological gaming lasts, outcomes, and whether it is a primary problem or is a symptom of comorbid problems.
A U-Shaped Association Between Intensity of Internet Use and Adolescent Health
Internet use has rapidly become a commonplace activity, especially among adolescents. Poor mental health and several somatic health problems are associated with heavy Internet use by adolescents.
Results of this study provide evidence of a U-shaped relationship between intensity of Internet use and poorer mental health of adolescents. Heavy Internet users were also confirmed to be at increased risk for somatic health problems in this nationally representative sample of adolescents.
Chlamydia Screening Among Young Women: Individual- and Provider-Level Differences in Testing
Chlamydia testing among adolescents and young women without symptoms is recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force, but only approximately one-half of eligible young women presenting for health care are screened appropriately.
Our work indicates that providers screen young women for chlamydia differentially according to patient age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and sexual health history. Biases in chlamydia screening may contribute to higher reported rates of chlamydia among minority and poor young women.
Sleep Duration, Sleep Regularity, Body Weight, and Metabolic Homeostasis in School-aged Children
Associations between short sleep duration, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction have been proposed for children but have not been explored appropriately.
The main findings included a nonlinear trend between sleep duration and body weight and the finding that children's sleep averaged 8 hours per night regardless of body weight. Lower sleep duration values were strongly associated with increased metabolic risk.
Impact of Bisphosphonates on Survival for Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
The use of steroids as a treatment for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy results in a slower progression in weakness. Bisphosphonates often are used in conjunction with steroid therapy to enhance bone health.
The combination of steroids and bisphosphonates seems to be associated with significantly improved survival rates compared with treatment with steroids alone.
Effects of Recombinant Human Prolactin on Breast Milk Composition
The direct effects of prolactin on the nutritional and antimicrobial composition of breast milk have not been examined previously in women.
The study demonstrates that recombinant human prolactin increases milk volume, induces changes in milk composition consistent with those during normal lactogenesis, and increases antimicrobially active oligosaccharide concentrations. The data suggest that prolactin is an important mediator of normal lactogenesis.
Metronidazole Population Pharmacokinetics in Preterm Neonates Using Dried Blood-Spot Sampling
Little is known about the pharmacokinetics and required dosage of metronidazole in preterm neonates.
In this study the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in preterm neonates was investigated by measurement of the drug in dried blood-spot samples. A dosage regimen is proposed that should result in more appropriate, less frequent dosing in the most preterm neonates.
Nonurgent Emergency-Department Care: Analysis of Parent and Primary Physician Perspectives
Many patient and family demographic characteristics are well-known risk factors for nonurgent emergency-department use. No previous study has examined the primary care physician perspective on parental decisions regarding specific nonurgent emergency-department visits by children.
When discussing specific instances when families in their practices sought nonurgent care for children in the emergency department, physicians believed that parents acted appropriately. Neither parents nor primary care physicians saw nonurgent emergency-department visits as a significant enough problem to warrant change.
Current Referral Patterns and Means to Improve Accuracy in Diagnosis of Undescended Testis
Primary care providers (PCPs) identify patients with undescended testis (UDT) and refer them to surgical specialists. Referral beyond the recommended times for orchiopexy has been reported, and PCPs' accuracy in identifying and distinguishing UDTs from retractile testes has been questioned.
We describe 3 observations that are strongly correlated with UDT, that is, birth history of UDT, prematurity, and visible scrotal asymmetry. UDT diagnoses are best made by 8 months of age, to reduce confusion with testicular retraction and to facilitate timely orchiopexy.
Water Consumption and Use, Trihalomethane Exposure, and the Risk of Hypospadias
Few epidemiological studies, which included varied exposure assessment, have investigated the relation between drinking-water–disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes and hypospadias, and their results have been inconclusive.
Little evidence was found for an association between trihalomethanes and hypospadias, but a novel association between water consumption and hypospadias was found. Factors that influence maternal water consumption, or other contaminants in tap or bottled water, might explain this finding.
Gender Differences in Food Insecurity and Morbidity Among Adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia
The associations between food insecurity and child well-being have been well studied on the basis of household levels of food insecurity, as reported by heads of households.
Household measures, however, may not capture gender biases in food insecurity and morbidity. This study assessed adolescents' own experience with food insecurity and how it was associated with morbidity and the effect of gender in this process.
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- Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics