OBJECTIVE. Patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy such as episodes of binge drinking may be as important as average levels of consumption in conferring risk for later childhood mental health and learning problems. However, it can be difficult to distinguish risk resulting from episodic or regular background levels of drinking. This large study investigates whether patterns of alcohol consumption are independently associated with child mental health and cognitive outcomes, whether there are gender differences in risk, and whether occasional episodes of higher levels of drinking carry any risk in the absence of regular daily drinking during pregnancy.
METHODS. This prospective, population-based study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We investigated the relationships between a binge pattern of alcohol use (consumption of ≥4 drinks in a day) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and childhood mental health problems at 47 and 81 months of age (n = 6355 and 5599, respectively). In a subgroup, we also investigated these relationships with child IQ at 49 months of age (n = 924).
RESULTS. After controlling for a range of prenatal and postnatal factors, any episodes of consuming ≥4 drinks in a day were independently associated with higher risks for mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in girls at the age of 47 months and in both genders at 81 months. There was no association with IQ scores at 49 months after adjustment for confounders. The consumption of ≥4 drinks in a day continued to carry risk for mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in the absence of regular daily drinking.
CONCLUSIONS. The consumption of ≥4 drinks in a day on an occasional basis during pregnancy may increase risk for child mental health problems in the absence of moderate daily levels of drinking. The main risks seem to relate to hyperactivity and inattention problems.
- prenatal alcohol exposure
- alcohol drinking, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
- mental health problems
- Accepted November 5, 2008.
- Copyright © 2009 by the American Academy of Pediatrics