The use of resistance methods to increase one's ability to exert or resist force. The training may include use of free weights, the individual's own body weight, machines, and/or other resistance devices to attain this goal.
Focusing a strengthening program to the muscles that stabilize the trunk of the body. The training emphasizes strengthening of the abdominal, low back, and gluteal muscles as well as flexibility of muscular attachments to the pelvis, such as the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.
A group of repetitions separated by scheduled rest periods (eg, 3 sets of 20 reps).
Abbreviation for repetitions.
One-rep max (1RM)
The maximum amount of weight that can be displaced in a single repetition.
The muscle shortens during contraction (eg, arm curl, leg press).
The muscle lengthens during contraction (eg, lowering a weight).
The muscle length is unchanged during contraction (eg, wall sits: athlete holds the position of feet planted flat on ground with knees at a 90° angle and back against the wall).
The speed of muscle contraction is fixed through the range of motion.
Progressive resistive exercises
An exercise regimen in which the athlete progressively increases the amount of weight lifted and/or the number of repetitions. The more repetitions, the greater the work performed and the greater the endurance development. The more weight lifted, the greater the strength development.
Repeated eccentric and concentric muscle contractions, such as jumping up onto and down from a platform.
A competitive sport that involves maximum lifting ability. Weightlifting (which is sometimes called Olympic lifting) includes the "snatch" and the "clean and jerk."
A competitive sport that also involves maximum lifting ability. Power lifting includes the "dead lift," the "squat," and the "bench press."
A competition in which muscle size, symmetry, and definition are judged.
National Council on Strength and Fitness Certified Personal Trainer (NCSF-CPT)
As of 2006, instructor certifications received by the following groups are certified by the National Committee for Certifying Agencies (NCCA): National Strength and Conditioning Association, American College of Sports Medicine, American Council on Exercise, National Council on Sports & Fitness, National Academy of Sports Medicine, and the National Federation of Professional Trainers. CPR indicates cardiopulmonary resuscitation; MC, multiple choice; CEC, continuing education credits, CEU, continuing education unit.