TABLE 2.

Number of Immunogenic Proteins and Polysaccharides Contained in Vaccines Over the Past 100 Years

1900196019802000
VaccineProteinsVaccineProteinsVaccineProteinsVaccineProteins/Polysaccharides
Smallpox*∼200Smallpox∼200Diphtheria1Diphtheria1
Total∼200Diphtheria1Tetanus1Tetanus1
Tetanus1WC-Pertussis∼3000AC-Pertussis¶¶2–5
WC-Pertussis§∼3000Polio15Polio15
Polio15Measles10Measles10
Total∼3217Mumps#9Mumps9
Rubella**5Rubella5
Total∼3041Hib††2
Varicella‡‡69
Pneumococcus§ §8
Hepatitis B‖Verbar;1
Total123–126
  • * Vaccinia vaccine: Goebel SJ, Johnson GP, Perkus ME, et al. Virology. 1990;179:247–266.

  • Diphtheria toxoid: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 (August);40:1–28.

  • Tetanus toxoid: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 (August);40:1–28.

  • § Whole cell pertussis vaccine: Number estimated from genome size. The sequence of Bordetella pertussis Tohama I strain will soon be completed at the Sanger Center in Great Britain.

  • Polio vaccine: Wimmer E, Nomoto A. Biologicals. 1993;21:349–356; Kitamura N, Semler BL, Rothberg PG, et al. Nature. 1981;291:547–553; Five proteins per poliovirus virion and 3 poliovirus strains in the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).

  • Measles vaccine: Griffen D, Bellini WL. Measles virus. In: Fields BN, ed. Knipe DM, Howley PM, et al, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Lipincott-Raven Publishers; 1996.

  • # Mumps vaccine: Elango N, Varsanyi TM, Kovamees J, Norrby E. J Gen Virol. 1988;69:2893–2900.

  • ** Rubella vaccine. Hofmann J, Gerstenberger S, Lachmann I, et al. Virus Res. 2000;68:155–160.

  • †† Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 (January);40:1–7.

  • ‡Dagger; Varicella vaccine: Cohen JI. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1996;10:457–468.

  • §§ Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49:1–29.

  • ‖‖ Hepatitis B vaccine: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 (November);40:1–25.

  • ¶¶ Acellular pertussis vaccine: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997 (March);46:1–25.