THE FIRST EDITORIAL BOARD
The first editorial board included nationally known pediatricians, many of them pediatric department chairmen. Most were involved in research activities that enabled them to critically review articles in their particular field of interest, but because of their knowledge and experience as clinicians, they also were able to evaluate articles in general pediatrics. Interestingly, several of these early leaders recognized the importance of psychosocial issues in the health care of children, leading to studies on early childhood development and behavior that evolved into a discipline that is an important part of pediatric practice today. What follows are short biographical sketches of the members who were appointed to the first editorial board in 1948. All but two were recipients of the annual John Howland Award, the most prestigious honor awarded by the American Pediatric Society (APS). This impressive list gave the journal immediate credibility and established it as the leading pediatric journal in the country.
Dr Aldrich was a member of the editorial board from 1948 until his death the following year. He was director of the Rochester, MN, Child Health Institute, a community project that was established to study growth and development of infants and children living in a normal environment over an extended period. Dr Aldrich also was noted for his studies of the psychosocial aspects of the practice of pediatrics.
Allan M. Butler
Dr Butler was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1952, during his 30-year tenure as a faculty member at Harvard University Medical School, chief of Children's Services at Massachusetts General Hospital and consultant to National Institutes of Health. His professional interests were broad: biological chemistry, parenteral fluids, renal disease, hypertension, community pediatrics, nephrology, and perinatal pediatrics. After his retirement from Harvard University in 1960, he directed the Health Insurance Plan for the United Auto Workers and then moved in 1962 to California, serving for several years as a special consultant to the California Department of Public Health. He died in 1986.
Harold K. Faber
Dr Faber, an early member of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), served on the editorial board from 1948 to 1956. While he was chairman of the department of pediatrics at Stanford for many years, he practiced at the Stanford Lane Hospital in San Francisco, CA. He was best known for research in poliomyelitis and for his interest in pediatric history. Using pneumoencephalography, Dr Faber demonstrated cerebral atrophy in infants, which he ascribed to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes, including hemorrhage and anoxia. He died in 1979.
Arild E. Hansen
Dr Hansen was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1951. After several years of practice in Minneapolis, MN, he moved to Texas, where he taught at the University of Texas School of Medicine, Galveston, and practiced at the local children's hospital. In 1959, he accepted a position at the Bruce Lyon Research Laboratory of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay in Oakland, CA. He died in 1962.
Dr McIntosh was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1956. After several years of private practice in New York City, he joined the faculty at the Johns Hopkins University, where he worked with Dr Edward A. Park from 1927 to 1930. He was then appointed Carpentier Professor of Pediatrics at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and director of pediatric services at Babies Hospital of the Columbia–Presbyterian Medical Center. He remained in these positions for 30 years. Dr McIntosh, who was noted for his clinical skills, with a particular interest in infantile dysentery, rheumatic fever, and poliomyelitis. With Emmett Holt, Jr, he edited Holt's Diseases of Infancy and Childhood in 1933 and 1940 and its successorPediatrics in 1953 and 1962. Dr McIntosh died in 1961.
Irvine McQuarrie, who was a mentor to many pediatric investigators and academicians, was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1950. After joining the division of metabolism and endocrinology at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, MI, he became interested in pediatrics, which lead to a short stay at the University of Rochester, NY, and 25 years as professor and chief of pediatrics in the University of Minnesota. His studies on the body's inability to manufacture proteins was the forerunner of research in agammaglobulinemia. He described familial spontaneously occurring hypoglycemia in infants and was the first to treat hypoglycemic seizures with adrenocorticotropic hormone. Dr McQuarrie died in 1961.
Edward A. Park
Dr Park was a member of the editorial board during 1948 and 1949. Leaving a medical practice in New York City in 1912, he joined Dr Howland in starting a new full-time department of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. In 1921 he was called to establish a pediatric department at Yale University where he remained until 1927. Upon the death of Dr Howland, he returned to Johns Hopkins, serving as professor of pediatrics until his retirement in 1946. Dr Park's primary research interest was rickets, and his major contribution at Hopkins was the expansion of the concept of a full-time faculty. Emphasizing the social aspects of pediatrics, he was the first to bring psychiatrists and social workers into the pediatric department, and after retirement he continued to speak out on social issues and reforms in medical care. Dr Park was the first recipient of the John Howland Award of the APS. He died in 1969.
Dr Powers was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1950. When Dr Park left Yale University to return to Johns Hopkins, Dr Powers succeeded him as chairman of the department of pediatrics, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. He was noted for his clinical acumen and his concern for the families and children who were cared for in the New Haven (CT) Hospital. He established the Southbury Training School for mentally retarded children, one of the first of its kind in the country, and was one of the first to describe the “rooming-in” experience for new mothers. Dr Powers performed little research himself, although his articles on infant feeding and β-hemolytic streptococcal disease were widely read, but graduates of his program became well-known investigators and department chairmen throughout the United States. He died in 1968.
Joseph Stokes, Jr
Dr Stokes, one of the founding members of the AAP, was a member of the editorial board from 1948 to 1957. He practiced at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital during the 1940s, then at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia, and from 1964 to 1966 at the Henry Phipps Institute of the University of Pennsylvania. He was noted for his studies in virology. He conducted field studies on influenza vaccines and live measles virus vaccines. His studies on attenuated live oral polio were abandoned because of concern about its safety. During World War II, Dr Stokes assisted Dr Sydney Gellis in instituting the use of gamma globulin to prevent infectious hepatitis among troops in the European Theater, and he was involved subsequently in hepatitis A virology research. Dr Stokes died in 1972.
THE EDITORS OF PEDIATRICS
The editors of Pediatrics have served with distinction during the first 50 years of publication. Some came from academia and others from a private practice setting. What they had in common was commitment to high-quality continuing medical education for pediatricians delivering health care to children. An essential part of their role as editors was to select articles for publication that were scientifically based, concisely written, and applicable to the practice of pediatrics. As a result of their efforts, the quality of medical care in the United States and in other parts of the world has been improved. What follows are short biographical sketches of the physicians who have served as editors of Pediatrics during the past 50 years.
Dr McCulloch, who was a practicing pediatrician and a member of the clinical pediatric staff at Washington University in St Louis, coedited the Journal of Pediatrics with Dr Borden Veeder from 1932. He then became the first editor of Pediatrics in 1948. On his move to Chicago, IL, he became chief-of-staff at La Rabida Sanitarium in Jackson Park and medical director of the Council on Rheumatic Fever of the Chicago Heart Association. Dr McCulloch continued to edit Pediatrics until 1954.
Dr McCulloch was a charter member of the AAP, one of the founders of the Section on Cardiology, and an AAP representative on the American Board of Pediatrics. In his history of the AAP from 1930 to 1951, M.C. Pease described Dr McCulloch as “a spare man with the characteristic thrift of the Scot which extended to his words. By nature he was a failure at all of the arts of subterfuge. There was about him an aura of self-confidence which seemed to lead him in the direction of assuming the whole job.” Dr McCulloch died in 1974.
Charles D. May
Dr May served as editor of Pediatrics from 1954 to 1961. Early in his career, he worked with Dr Blackfan in Boston, MA, on the recognition of pancreatic lesions in cystic fibrosis. But his interest also extended to infant nutrition. On leaving the army in 1946, he joined successively pediatric departments at the University of Minnesota; the State University of Iowa, where he was chairman; and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, and Babies Hospital. With his move to New York, he became executive director of the Physicians' Council for Information on Child Health.
After stepping down as editor of Pediatrics, Dr May continued his teaching career at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. In 1970, he accepted a joint appointment at the University of Colorado and the National Jewish Hospital in Denver, where he was head of the pediatric allergy division. He retired in 1980 and died in 1992.
Clement A. Smith
Most of Dr Smith's academic years were spent at Harvard University Medical School, where he conducted research on the newborn. He is perhaps best known for his book, The Physiology of the Newborn Infant, a major reference work for the new field of neonatology, but he also wrote a series of important articles on medical writing in the American Journal of Diseases of Children.
In 1962, the year he became editor of Pediatrics, Dr Smith received the AAP's Borden award for his work on infant nutrition. After his retirement from the Journal in 1974, he received the Virginia Apgar Award from the Perinatal Section of the AAP and the Howland Award from the APS. Dr Smith died in 1988.
Tom Cone, Jr
During the last decade of a long naval career, Dr Cone served as chief of Pediatric and Dependent Services at the National Naval Medical Service in Bethesda, MD. After retiring from the Navy in 1963, he served as assistant director of the adolescent department and director of the birth defects unit at Boston Children's Hospital. Dr Cone became an associate editor of Pediatrics after having served as book editor for several years.
While Dr Cone was associate editor of Pediatrics, he wrote more than 600 white-space fillers on the history of medicine, an activity that led to his publication of 200 Years of Feeding Infants in America in 1976 and A History of Pediatricsin 1980. He received the Outstanding Service Award from the AAP's Section on Uniformed Services in 1984. Dr Cone died in 1997.
Jerold F. Lucey
Dr Lucey has been editor of Pediatrics since 1974. After pediatric training at Bellevue Hospital and Columbia–Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, he joined Dr Clement Smith as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. Since 1956, he has been a faculty member at the University of Vermont College of Medicine in Burlington, VT, where he currently holds the Wallace Professorship in Pediatrics.
Like Dr Smith, Dr Lucey has had a special interest in neonatology. He published the first randomized controlled trial of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice, conducted trials on the use of surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome, and founded an international network of neonatal units to carry out large randomized controlled trials of new therapies. Dr Lucey was chairman of the AAP's Fetus and Newborn Committee from 1963 to 1972, during which time the Committee wrote recommendations for regionalization of the care of premature infants. He received the AAP Grulee Award in 1981.
Robert J. Haggerty
Dr Haggerty's academic career included two positions at Harvard University, separated by a decade at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, where he chaired the department of pediatrics.
In 1980, Dr Haggerty became editor of Pediatrics in Reviewafter having served 6 years as co-editor of Pediatrics. At the same time, he became President of the William T. Grant Foundation, a position he held until 1993.
Internationally recognized for his contributions in the field of developmental and behavioral pediatrics, Dr Haggerty became Executive Director of the International Pediatric Society in 1993. He received the AAP's Grulee Award in 1981, the AAP–AMA Jacobi Award in 1996, and the Howland Award from the APS in 1998.
R. James McKay
Dr McKay was Chairman of the department of pediatrics at the University of Vermont College of Medicine from 1951 until his retirement in 1980. He represented the AAP on the Pediatric Residency Review Committee from 1960 to 1966, the Council of Medical Specialty Societies from 1969 to 1971, and the Joint Council on National Pediatric Societies from 1969 to 1971. He served as president of the AAP in 1970–1971. He has received both the AAP's Grulee Award and the AAP–AMA Jacobi Award.
Dr McKay, who became an associate editor of Pediatrics in 1978 after several years as book editor, has also served as editor and associate editor of Pediatrics in Review. From 1964 to 1979, he was co-editor of Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics.
Dr Harvey served as associate editor of Pediatrics from 1991 to 1994. After establishing a private practice in Palo Alto in 1958, he served as a member of the clinical faculty and later the full-time faculty at the Stanford University School of Medicine from 1960 to 1994. Before shifting his area of interest to health policy in the 1980s, including 2 years as a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Health Policy Studies at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr Harvey was Chief of Pulmonary Disease at Children's Hospital at Stanford. After holding many AAP positions at the state and national level, he served as AAP president in 1989–1990. Dr Harvey received the AAP's Grulee Award in 1997.
Ralph D. Feigin
Dr Feigin became associate editor of Pediatrics, a position he still holds, in 1994. After beginning a teaching career as instructor in pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, in 1968, he advanced in that institution to Professor of Pediatrics and, by 1973, Director of the Division of Infectious Diseases. Since 1977, he has been J. S. Abercrombie Professor of Pediatrics and chairman of the department of pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX, and is now president and chief executive officer of the medical school.
With J. D. Cherry, Dr Feigin wrote the Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. In 1997, he received the Medical Education Lifetime Achievement Award from the AAP.
I thank AAP archivist Dr John Zwicki for his assistance in gathering material used in preparation of this paper.
- Copyright © 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics